Non-Hispanic white men make up As of , there are The breakdowns by race and ethnicity, gender, and occupations in this section focus on workers age 18 to 64 who are represented by a union, as do our estimates of union wage premiums advantages discussed later in the paper. Certain residual formulas in the pay TV and the subscription video-on-demand SVOD industries needed to be increased because they did not adequately reflect the value of the content created by WGA members.
The WGA health fund had been running a deficit due to the rapid inflation in health care costs, and the WGA determined that the period of record profitability for the studios and networks was a good time to reverse the current trend to deficits with additional employer contributions. The National Labor Relations Board in reversed an earlier decision and ruled that graduate students could unionize in the private sector.
The classic reference for the union impact on inequality, and many other matters, is Richard B.
Freeman and James l. Medoff, What Do Unions Do? New York: Basic Books, Also see Brantly Callaway and William J.
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Press, , Table 4. From to , productivity rose The regression-based gap controls for gender, race and ethnicity, education, experience, geographic division, major occupation and industry, and citizenship. The log of the hourly wage is the dependent variable. The gap uses a five-year average of wages from to There are three groups of workers whose wages have been affected by the decline of unionization. First, there are the remaining union members, who according to research have experienced a decline in the earnings premium that comes from belonging to a union—a decline especially large for female members.
For instance, the union wage premium fell over the to period by nearly a third for private-sector women. The estimates referenced are from Figure 3. Press, Workers not covered by unions—those who are neither in a union themselves nor covered by a union contract—are almost twice as likely 4. Union density is the share of workers in similar industries and regions who are union members. For the The effects of union decline on the wages of nonunion women are not as substantial because women were not as likely to be unionized as men were in The 10 states that had the least erosion of collective bargaining saw their inflation-adjusted median hourly compensation grow by The 10 states that had the most erosion of collective bargaining saw their inflation-adjusted median hourly compensation grow by 5.
Erosion is measured by the percentage-point decline in the share of workers in the state covered by a collective bargaining contract. Valerie Wilson and William M. The regression analysis producing this estimate controlled for education, experience, race, citizenship status, geographic division, industry, and occupation. Data are unadjusted for factors such as demographics and employer size. Department of Labor. In , women made up Service occupations include protective service, food preparation and serving, healthcare support, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance, and personal care and service.
EPI analysis of microdata from the Current Population Survey finds that hourly wages for black workers represented by unions are Hispanic workers represented by unions are paid In contrast, non-Hispanic white union workers have a smaller—9. The regression analysis producing this estimate controlled for education, experience, gender, race, citizenship status, geographic division, industry, and occupation. Richard Trumka, speech given at the Steelworkers convention , July 1, Benjamin Amick et al.
Overall, unionization is associated with a 14 to 32 percent drop in traumatic injuries and a 29 to 83 percent drop in fatalities. See Alison D. The federal standard would include an assessment of risk factors such as staffing levels , a post-incidence response procedure, employee participation in the creation of a plan, and prohibition on retaliation against an employee who may seek legal assistance after an incident.
See also a Government Accountability Office report that found that workplace violence is a serious and growing concern for 15 million health care workers and can be prevented through violence prevention programs: U. Eighty-seven percent of private-sector workers in the highest 10 percent of wage earners have the ability to earn paid sick days, compared with only 27 percent of private-sector workers in the lowest 10 percent.
Videt and de Winter cite A. Department of Labor, July 21, Adjusted data are based on analysis of fourth-quarter Employment Cost Index microdata as presented in Table 4. Department of Labor Statistics Working Paper no. Union—nonunion gaps in access to paid vacation and holidays are much narrower in state and local governments because teachers make up a large portion of state and local government employment and they are not usually offered paid vacation. Respondents were asked whether they or their spouses belong to a union. The sample excludes all workers who say their schedules never change.
DB pensions such as those historically negotiated by unions provide more secure, adequate, and egalitarian retirement incomes than k -style DC plans.
In contrast, employers that offer k -style plans typically require workers to contribute to the plans in order to receive an employer match, and these workers shoulder all the investment risk. Income estimate is for all seniors age 65 and older, whether retired or not. Rubinstein and John E. Jacob S. Press, , Employers, where law permits, may voluntarily recognize a union based on a simple showing of majority support from the employees. There are no punitive damages or criminal charges. The most serious penalty, a bargaining order to work with the union on a first contract, is often ineffectual as the anti-union campaign continues.
A Chicago study found that 82 percent of employers hired anti-union management consultants. A notice of proposed rulemaking from the U. Annette Bernhardt et al. Another study of 62 union-representation campaigns launched in Chicago in found that 49 percent of employers threatened to close or relocate all or part of the business if workers elected to form a union. Testimony of Guerino J. In the Chicago study, for nearly all of petitions filed with the NLRB to represent previously unorganized workers, the majority of workers supported unionization when the petitions were filed, but unions were victorious in only 31 percent of these campaigns.
Because the law gives employers the right to multiple levels of review by an administrative law judge, then by the full NLRB, and then by appellate courts , delays between the union election and the final results can last for years. It is hard to isolate the decision of a state to become RTW from other legislative changes or to separate the RTW effect from the many factors, including recessions, that influence state labor market conditions. The most recent and most methodologically rigorous studies conclude that the policy has no statistically significant impact whatsoever. According to Gordon Lafer in The One Percent Solution , the argument that budget deficits were the result of overspending bureaucrats and overly generous union contracts did not fit the facts: there was no statistical correlation between the size of budget deficits and the presence or strength of labor unions.
In the wake of Act 10, Wisconsin enacted a broad rewrite of its civil service law, lengthening the probationary period for new employees during which time they can be fired for any reason and centralizing hiring with the Department of Administration, a highly politicized agency; union representatives fear the law will lead back to a system where political appointees have disproportionate power to reward friends and punish enemies.
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The provision was passed as part of the state budget. A split decision effectively upholds the ruling of the lower court. Janus v. Docket No.
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Jake Rosenfeld finds that unions increase voter turnout, especially in the private sector. Menzel created an innovative material-handling system for large-roll batching used in plastics, fiberglass, rubber, and other applications besides textiles. Cosmopolitan entrepreneurs such as Hans Balmer came with the initial German and Swiss wave.
Instead of staying just two years, he married an American and, in , founded his own business, Symtech. Balmer also has brought other foreign companies to Spartanburg, and he succeeded Kurt Zimmerli as international committee chair for the Spartanburg Area Chamber of Commerce. An exception to the predominance of small and midsize companies in the initial foreign surge was the German chemical giant Hoechst.
Hoechst traces its local origins to its joint venture with Hercules, a U. In , Hoechst merged with Celanese to form Hoechst Celanese. The company has both raw materials and fiber plants in the area; in the chemical plant alone, equity investment totals close to half a billion dollars. A truly global organization, Hoechst is a cosmopolitan force in Spartanburg. It gives its U. Besides bringing jobs to Spartanburg, Hoechst brought another important local leader: Paul Foerster.
In , Foerster moved to Spartanburg from Germany on a four-year contract to run the fibers facility. The contract was extended until his retirement in A cultural cross-fertilizer, Foerster turned Hoechst Celanese into an important charitable contributor to the region despite the absence of a charitable tradition in Germany. Today Foerster is honorary consul for Germany, liaison to Europe for South Carolina, past chairman of the Spartanburg Area Chamber of Commerce, and the one responsible for much of the international traffic through Spartanburg.
In the s, attracting foreign investment became an explicit strategy for Greenville as well as for Spartanburg. Greenville has had a successful Headquarters Recruitment Program since , and in , 14 foreign companies announced that they would open new regional headquarters or expand existing offices in the city. Foreign-owned service companies located in the region as well.
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Supermarket conglomerate Ahold of the Netherlands, a member of the European Retail Alliance, employs 4, people in the Upstate through its Bi-Lo chain, headquartered in Greenville. For more than 30 years, the state has led a collaborative effort to provide outstanding technical training—a crucial factor in expanding high-wage manufacturing jobs in the Spartanburg-Greenville area.
Kennedy School of Government have shown that state and other local tax incentives play little or no role in where foreign companies locate their businesses in the United States.
click here Foreign investors sometimes do decide to locate in a particular place in the United States if they will get tax credits at home for state tax payments, but generally, business factors play a larger role. It was impossible to sustain sleepy local companies in an environment in which world-class companies came looking for better technology and skills.
The South Carolina State Board for Technical and Comprehensive Education offers free, customized technical training of prospective workers and supervisors to companies that bring new investment to the state. The board assigns staff to prepare manuals, interview workers, and teach classes based on technical requirements established by the company. The company is not obligated to hire any worker who completes the training, nor do workers have to accept any job offer.
In some cases, the state will pay to send first-time line supervisors for training elsewhere, even in a foreign country. Training benefits apply to major facility expansions as well as to new sites. A related initiative is the Buy South Carolina program, which supports just-in-time inventory systems by finding local suppliers. Devised as a crash program to deal with economic desperation in , the State Tech Special Schools are now a national model.
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