The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)

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In turn, chronic pain is the consequence of a series of maladaptive responses following tissue or nerve damage 1 , 2. However, it is unclear whether the plasticity of NECAB2 in response to peripheral nerve injury indicates molecular adaptation or affords causality by reducing pronociceptive neurotransmission. Conversely, genetic rescue of Necab2 at the spinal level was sufficient to reinstate WT-like pain sensitivity, designating NECAB2 as a critical molecular determinant of pronociceptive neurotransmission.

Cumulatively, we believe our findings significantly extend the available data 25 , 30 on the association of NECAB2 with excitatory circuits at the DRG and spinal levels. DAPI was used as a nuclear counterstain. The rectangle denotes the position of the inset. Tissues from 2 or more mice were processed for histochemical analysis. Solid and open arrowheads point to colocalization and the lack thereof, respectively. Indeed, we found that Necab2 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in DRGs, but not spinal cord, ipsilateral to the SNI as compared with the contralateral side, which served as a negative control 1.

Thus, data from injury and inflammatory models suggest that NECAB2 expression is differentially regulated.

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These observations indicate that an antibody may show correct staining in one tissue but not another and highlight the importance of testing antibody specificity for each tissue, organ, or system analyzed in KO mice 36 , F, forward; R, reverse. Note that antibody HPA has an unspecific band asterisk between 2 specific bands.

Another nonspecific band occurred above kDa and is also indicated with an asterisk. Therefore, it is plausible that the loss of a NECAB isoform is compensated by another biasing functional phenotype. We were not able to detect differences between the sexes in the SNI model either. G — I Differential responses with the von Frey filament test after inflammation. Note the rapid behavioral recovery upon Necab2 deletion. Results of other behavioral assays e.

BL, basal level. WT mice and reached the basal threshold by 72 hours Figure 4, H and I. Thus, and in contrast to NECAB2, secretagogin does not appear to molecularly gate pronociceptive excitation associated with inflammatory pain. Convergence of inflammatory signals in spinal cord. We gained insights into the extent of the neuronal circuitry that underpins inflammatory pain signaling by using a genetic reporter approach exploiting permanent genetic access to transiently active neurons, also termed targeted recombination in active cell populations TRAP 40 , driven by the immediate-early gene Arc.

We focused on recombination events at the spinal level, since Arc alike Fos , the alternative and experimentally amenable immediate-early gene seems not to be expressed in DRGs Genetic dissection of spinal neuron activity upon inflammatory pain. Tamoxifen was administered for 3 consecutive days after stimulation.

PI was used as a nuclear counterstain.

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Insets are single-plane images selected from each deck. These data concur with glial activation in neuropathic and inflammatory pain models refs. Arrowheads in E indicate the medial spinal cord superficial layers ipsilaterally. NECAB2 is also expressed in hind-, mid-, and forebrain regions, including in nuclei that tune sensory relay 8 , Therefore, we asked whether NECAB2 at the spinal level is sufficient to gate pronociceptive signaling.

To this end, we exploited the tissue-restricted expression of Hoxb8 46 , a member of the Antp homeobox gene family.

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Hoxb8 is expressed in spinal cord neurons and glia as well as in all DRG neurons, while sparing the brain, apart from the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Genetic rescue of Necab2 at the spinal level reinstates tactile allodynia after inflammation. Note that Hoxb8 expression is restricted to spinal cord and DRGs. Individual planar sections are shown at anatomical coordinates corresponding to C and D , respectively. Sections were counterstained with DAPI.

The use of SNI is notable, because it allows the determination of functional recovery at high temporal resolution 32 and led us to distinguish roles for NECAB2 when combining nerve injury with genetic loss-of-function as well as gain-of-function analyses. This is significant, since modulating the excitation-inhibition balance in spinal circuits can alleviate neuropathic pain 49 , The involvement of laminae I and II interneurons of the dorsal spinal horn in transmitting inflammation-related nerve activity is reinforced by our immediate early-gene—driven Arc -driven genetic labeling TRAP Hogg, P.

Oakes, S.

Wetherell Eds. Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell. A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. Hewstone Eds. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

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Mad mobs and Englishmen? Myths and realities of the riots. Rees, A. The Twenty Statements Test. Symon Eds. Ritchie, T. Self-concept clarity mediates the relation between stress and subjective well-being. Roccas, S. Social identity complexity. Others in mind: Social origins of self-consciousness.

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    Adolescent egocentrism and cognitive functioning during late adolescence. Adolescence, 33 , — Toma, C. Self-affirmation underlies Facebook use. Watkins, D. Cultural dimensions, gender, and the nature of self-concept: A fourteen-country study. Zimbardo, P. The human choice: Individuation, reason and order versus deindividuation impulse and chaos.

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    Define and describe the self-concept, its influence on information processing, and its diversity across social groups. Describe the concepts of self-complexity and self-concept clarity, and explain how they influence social cognition and behavior. Differentiate the various types of self-awareness and self-consciousness. Describe self-awareness, self-discrepancy, and self-affirmation theories, and their interrelationships. Explore how we sometimes overestimate the accuracy with which other people view us. Ultimately, this increased understanding has helped to put more effective strategies in place for reducing the risks to people and property that riots bring.

    The self-concept is a schema that contains knowledge about us. It is primarily made up of physical characteristics, group memberships, and traits. Because the self-concept is so complex, it has extraordinary influence on our thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and we can remember information that is related to it well. Self-complexity, the extent to which individuals have many different and relatively independent ways of thinking about themselves, helps people respond more positively to events that they experience.

    Self-concept clarity, the extent to which individuals have self-concepts that are clearly defined and stable over time, can also help people to respond more positively to challenging situations. Differences in the accessibility of different self-schemas help create individual differences: for instance, in terms of our current concerns and interests. This can, in turn, lead them to engage in self-affirmation as a way of resolving these discrepancies.

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    When people lose their self-awareness, they experience deindividuation. Private self-consciousness refers to the tendency to introspect about our inner thoughts and feelings; public self-consciousness refers to the tendency to focus on our outer public image and the standards set by others. People frequently overestimate the extent to which others are paying attention to them and accurately understand their true intentions in public situations.

    Exercises and Critical Thinking What are the most important aspects of your self-concept, and how do they influence your self-esteem and social behavior? Consider people you know who vary in terms of their self-complexity and self-concept clarity. What effects do these differences seem to have on their self-esteem and behavior? Describe a situation where you experienced a feeling of self-discrepancy between your actual and ideal selves. How well does self-affirmation theory help to explain how you responded to these feelings of discrepancy?

    Try to identify some situations where you have been influenced by your private and public self-consciousness. Sakae was able to find one young man who disappeared at age He had not taken the exam for fear of failing it and disappointing his family. Tempted by suicide, he had not found a way to take his life.

    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)
    The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition) The idea of relative pain (Japanese Edition)

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