Modern electronic keyboards can emulate the sound of the pump organ. The acoustical effects described below are a result of the free-reed mechanism. Therefore, they are essentially identical for the Western and Indian harmoniums and the reed organ. In , Hermann von Helmholtz published his seminal book, On the Sensations of Tone , in which he used the harmonium extensively to test different tuning systems: . And as its vibrators also admit of a delicate and durable tuning, it appeared to me peculiarly suitable for experiments on a more perfect system of tones.
Using two manuals and two differently tuned stop sets, he was able to simultaneously compare Pythagorean to just and to equal-tempered tunings and observe the degrees of inharmonicity inherent to the different temperaments , he subdivided the octave to 28 tones, to be able to perform modulations of 12 minor and 17 major keys in just intonation without going into harsh dissonance that is present with the standard octave division in this tuning.
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In practice, that harmonium was constructed with 84 keys, for convenience of fingering. Another famous reed organ that was evaluated was built by Poole. Lord Rayleigh also used the harmonium to devise a method for indirectly measuring frequency accurately, using approximated known equal temperament intervals and their overtone beats ;  the harmonium had the advantage of providing clear overtones that enabled the reliable counting of beats by two listeners, one per note. However, Rayleigh acknowledged that maintaining constant pressure in the bellows is difficult and fluctuation of the pitch occurs rather frequently as a result.
In the generation of its tones, a reed organ is similar to an accordion or concertina , but not in its installation, as an accordion is held in both hands whereas a reed organ is usually positioned on the floor in a wooden casing which might make it mistakable for a piano at the very first glimpse. Reed organs are operated either with pressure or with suction bellows.
Pressure bellows permit a wider range to modify the volume, depending on whether the pedaling of the bellows is faster or slower. In North America and the United Kingdom, a reed organ with pressure bellows is referred to as a harmonium, whereas in continental Europe, any reed organ is called a harmonium regardless of whether it has pressure or suction bellows; as reed organs with pressure bellows were more difficult to produce and therefore more expensive, North American and British reed organs and melodeons generally use suction bellows and operate on vacuum.
Reed organ frequencies depend on the blowing pressure; the fundamental frequency decreases with medium pressure compared to low pressure, but it increases again at high pressures by several hertz for the bass notes measured. During attack, it was shown that the reed produces most strongly the fundamental, along with a second transverse or torsional mode, which are transient.
Radiation patterns and coupling effects between the sound box and the reeds on the timbre appear not to have been studied to date. The unusual reed-vibration physics have a direct effect on harmonium playing, as the control of its dynamics in playing is restricted and subtle; the free reed of the harmonium is riveted from a metal frame and is subjected to airflow, which is pumped from the bellows through the reservoir, pushing the reed and bringing it to self-exciting oscillation and to sound production in the direction of airflow.
The harmonium was somewhat embraced by European and American composers of classical music, it was also used often in the folk music of the Appalachians and South of the United States. Harmoniums played a significant part in the new rise of Nordic folk music, especially in Finland. In the late s, a harmonium could be found in most schools where the bands met, and it became natural for the bands to include a harmonium in their setup. A typical folk band then—particularly in Western Finland—consisted of violin s , double-bass and harmonium. In the Netherlands, the introduction of the harmonium triggered a boom in religious house music, its organ-like sound quality allowed Reformed families to sing psalms and hymns at home.
A lot of new hymns were composed expressly for voice and harmonium, notably those by Johannes de Heer. The harmonium repertoire includes many pieces written originally for the church organ , which may be played on a harmonium as well, because they have a small enough range and use fewer stops.
Harmoniums have been used in western popular music since at least the s.
John Lennon played a Mannborg harmonium  on the Beatles ' hit single " We Can Work It Out ", released in December , and the band used the instrument on other songs recorded during the sessions for their Rubber Soul album,  they also used the instrument on the famous "final chord" of " A Day in the Life ", and on the song " Being for the Benefit of Mr.
Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
German singer Nico was closely associated with the harmonium, using it as her main instrument, during the late 60s and 70s, on albums such as The Marble Index , Desertshore and The End What Crisis? Hodgson used also used a harmonium on "The Garden" from his solo album Open the Door ; the band Blind Pilot also used a harmonium in their song "New York". The harmonium has become a mainstay instrument of Hindu and Sikh-based devotional mantra music known as kirtan , a 7th-8th century Indian music, which popularly emerged in the west during in the s.
The harmonium is popular to the present day, and the harmonium remains an important instrument in many genres of Indian subcontinent. For example, it is a staple of vocal North Indian classical music and Sufi Muslim Qawwali concerts, it is commonly found in Indian and Bangladeshi homes. Though derived from the designs developed in France, the harmonium was developed further in Bengal in unique ways, such as the addition of drone stops and a scale-changing mechanism. In Bengal, Dwarkanath Ghose of the Dwarkin company modified the imported harmony flute and developed the hand-held harmonium, which has subsequently become an integral part of the Indian music scene.
Initially it aroused curiosity, but gradually people started playing it,  and Ghose took the initiative to modify it,  it was in response to the Indian needs that the hand-held harmonium was introduced. All Indian musical instruments are played with the musician sitting on the floor or on a stage, behind the instrument or holding it in his hands. In that era, Indian homes did not use tables and chairs. The harmonium was widely accepted in Indian music, particularly Parsi and Marathi stage music, in the late 19th century. By the early 20th century, however, in the context of nationalist movements that sought to depict India as utterly separate from the West, the harmonium was portrayed as an unwanted foreigner.
Technical concerns with the harmonium included its inability to produce meend slides between notes which can be done in instruments like Sitar and Tanpura , and the fact that, once tuned, it cannot be adjusted in the course of performance; the former prevents it from articulating the subtle inflections such as andolan , gentle oscillation so crucial to many ragas; the latter prevents it from articulating the subtle differences in intonational color between a given svara in two different ragas.
For these reasons, it was banned from All India Radio from to ; a ban still stands on harmonium solos.
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On the other hand, many of the harmonium's qualities suited it very well for the newly reformed classical music of the early 20th century: it is easy for amateurs to learn; it supports group singing and large voice classes; it provides a template for standardized raga grammar; it is loud enough to provide a drone in a concert hall. For these reasons, it has become the instrument of choice for accompanying most North Indian classical vocal genres, with top vocalists e. However, it is still despised by some connoisseurs of Indian music, who prefer the sarangi as an accompanying instrument for khyal singing.
A popular usage is by followers of the Hindu and Sikh faiths, who use it to accompany their devotional songs bhajan and kirtan respectively. There is at least one harmonium in any mandir Hindu temple and gurdwara Sikh temple around the world; the harmonium is commonly accompanied by the tabla as well as a dholak. To Sikhs, the harmonium is known as the vaja or baja , it is also referred to as a peti literally, box in some parts of North India and Maharashtra. The harmonium plays an integral part in Qawwali music. Almost all Qawwals use the harmonium as their sole musical accompaniment, it has received international exposure as the genre of Qawwali music has been popularized by renowned Pakistani musicians, including Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan.
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There is some discussion of Indian harmonium makers producing reproductions of Western-style reed organs for the export trade. Vidyadhar Oke has developed a microtone harmonium, which can play 22 microtones as required in Indian classical music; the fundamental tone Shadja and the fifth Pancham are fixed, but the other ten notes have two microtones each, one higher and one lower. The higher microtone is selected by pulling out a knob below the key. In this way, the shruti harmonium can be tuned for any particular raga by simply pulling out knobs wherever a higher shruti is required.
Bhishmadev Vedi is said to have been the first to contemplate improving the harmonium by augmenting it with a swarmandal harp-like string box attached to the top of the instrument. His disciple, Manohar Chimote, later implemented this concept, also making the instrument more responsive to key pressure, and called the instrument a samvadini —a name now widely accepted. In , Late Jogesh Chandra Biswas first modified the then-existing Harmoniums, so it folds down into a much thinner space for easier-maneuverability. Prior to that, if the instrument was boxed, it used to need 2 people to carry it, holding it from either side; this improvisation became a generic design in most harmoniums since then and coined with the term "Folding Harmoniums".
See also: the Shruti box , a keyless harmonium used only to produce drones to support other soloists. In the view points of maintenance and restoration, the pump organs are often categorized into several types. Positive organ small pipe organ with bellows. Portative organ portable pipe organ with bellows. Regal without pipes beating reed organ, without pipes after the 16th century. Accordion circa invented c. Portable or folding:  Physharmonica invented in Two manual with pedal  harmonium Rocking melodeon   or lap organ   .
Portable melodeon  or lyre-leg melodeon  .
Piano-style melodeon   c. Flattop reed organ:    melodeon or American reed organ.
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Folding reed organ  19th century. Chapel organ . Two manual with pedal reed organ  pipe-top. Parlor organ   with top. Piano case reed organ . Player reed organ  disc-type. Electrostatic-pickup reed organ s—60s. Electronic organ —. Church building A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions.
In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between and From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe.
A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , or Oriental Orthodox , housing a cathedra , the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop. In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish.
In Old English the sequence of derivation started as " cirice " Middle English " churche ", "church" in its current pronunciation.
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